Warning: imagecreatefrompng(http://marineplanning.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/pdvsa_map_excluding_protected-300x189.png): failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php on line 6976

Warning: Illegal string offset 'url' in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php on line 18625

Warning: Illegal string offset 'url' in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php on line 18625

Warning: imagecreatefrompng(http://marineplanning.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/pdvsa_map_priority_sites-300x203.png): failed to open stream: HTTP request failed! HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php on line 6976

Warning: Illegal string offset 'url' in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php on line 18625

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 187

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 188

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 189

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 190

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 192

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 193

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 194

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/tcpdf/tcpdf.php:6976) in /home/oceanwealth/public_html/marineplanningwebsite/wp-content/plugins/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced.php on line 212
%PDF-1.7 % 7 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 1 0 R /LastModified (D:20210506214935+00'00') /Resources 2 0 R /MediaBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /CropBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /BleedBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /TrimBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /ArtBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /Contents 8 0 R /Rotate 0 /Group << /Type /Group /S /Transparency /CS /DeviceRGB >> /PZ 1 >> endobj 8 0 obj <> stream xYn8}Wc Zvk,h@K͖T]_86 ֆE")͙3gf(K2ZOL>OKGN񋀂Mf|r: `R$^IQ^=sӳ۴/I![tZ>Uwimz='gV;^QB8R Sf8gM^)8IMlr GA{xGMu/~y-yt {_~F$Qq]Օ1͙&[W9NAW*]p,SE]S^)Y[S\j) N4L+ fd:"wxd}2kcyڹhJ1ܐPX9u1 vRʹU\cLL8b68ZაIWT{$.ެفǣ'5׶d\῜){nhIa!!*poS%dOjYMXf5ǤQWWR6]pbD}&s~Lµ_rY%l%i&B9bfAZDXN iiti>>hr#賤F!7oTU)yvTea3384E)nG>ʁ%=c%ء1& ۅ yB 0}jfW[vDݔKǡ[^1l(h\8$ ƛFp @-o e}E:MpRU$9V6vŹczP;ClۑANXnP$ D5!)V#Wa@r"\4zr^<|T>EJ!6R0-a.ߤwȒ"-OaqEŘi3Ϣ8Y>Q>1c,4l6ɖ*PG!;ئXwԼ`8;1ʼ9j>Zd'<aiabՂZ&jCt+|e^Q|B)h6dj;Emׇ#5U\I9,rQ3:6𹵳KNe]nsb&vV[6.ܛ-TUYFAr0yyfᄑe՛df)htwBpE%vFqi޴e%L)GO$- {{kލsot RW endstream endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 1 0 R /LastModified (D:20210506214935+00'00') /Resources 2 0 R /MediaBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /CropBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /BleedBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /TrimBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /ArtBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 792.000000] /Contents 10 0 R /Rotate 0 /Group << /Type /Group /S /Transparency /CS /DeviceRGB >> /Annots [ 6 0 R ] /PZ 1 >> endobj 10 0 obj <> stream xYn6STI֟w&˰ŒIJF.Iu=Оa/C*N,/qAq$JwCRa!~`!G B ^GśY ?̎»/KyIY9z,3ut=C{{ 2j~GFǧ} }Ӷ'$h)Yq -v FXn8,*$ˏ0{z #8S kn,\h<[b +bjN,gVK80nVux*E @V\FG8$'cIA?/ d͟ LWU jD+l="tȐht B1q]7ۥЪmxk܊k!w'FUV|] (P(OkCa)pu4IR~ LsVF0s~dCz148J:\5i1={T5|tr 2 w˱kAPHvI#VWjVr}~b40$+R"\ r&R&sWD'>\/{lZ"Z*;Z 4yW W_r> endobj 3 0 obj <> endobj 5 0 obj <> endobj 4 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Form /FormType 1 /Filter /FlateDecode /BBox [0.000000 0.000000 612.000000 76.535433] /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Resources << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Font << /F2 5 0 R /F1 3 0 R >> >> /Length 245 >> stream xj0w?ۡ$[@ BrdlC^  |J!}`5xQ %\+(A8BAoAMR^B7D]!# (û[WiZ> /XObject << /XT4 4 0 R >> >> endobj 6 0 obj <> /H /I>> endobj 11 0 obj << /Title (Case 1: PDVSA) /Author (Marine Planning) /Creator (WP Post to PDF Enhanced plugin by Lewis Rosenthal \(http://www.2rosenthals.net/wordpress/help/general-help/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/\) with TCPDF) /Producer (TCPDF 6.2.6 \(http://www.tcpdf.org\)) /CreationDate (D:20210506214935+00'00') /ModDate (D:20210506214935+00'00') /Trapped /False >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Metadata /Subtype /XML /Length 4405 >> stream application/pdf Case 1: PDVSA Marine Planning TCPDF 2021-05-06T21:49:35+00:00 WP Post to PDF Enhanced plugin by Lewis Rosenthal (http://www.2rosenthals.net/wordpress/help/general-help/wp-post-to-pdf-enhanced/) with TCPDF 2021-05-06T21:49:35+00:00 2021-05-06T21:49:35+00:00 TCPDF TCPDF 6.2.6 (http://www.tcpdf.org) uuid:041b6d15-7c1f-c88f-db35-a0832cfc8103 uuid:041b6d15-7c1f-c88f-db35-a0832cfc8103 http://ns.adobe.com/pdf/1.3/ pdf Adobe PDF Schema http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/mm/ xmpMM XMP Media Management Schema internal UUID based identifier for specific incarnation of a document InstanceID URI http://www.aiim.org/pdfa/ns/id/ pdfaid PDF/A ID Schema internal Part of PDF/A standard part Integer internal Amendment of PDF/A standard amd Text internal Conformance level of PDF/A standard conformance Text endstream endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Version /1.7 /Pages 1 0 R /Names << >> /ViewerPreferences << /Direction /L2R >> /PageLayout /SinglePage /PageMode /UseNone /OpenAction [7 0 R /FitH null] /Metadata 12 0 R >> endobj xref 0 14 0000000000 65535 f 0000003796 00000 n 0000004601 00000 n 0000003861 00000 n 0000004078 00000 n 0000003967 00000 n 0000004726 00000 n 0000000015 00000 n 0000000465 00000 n 0000001988 00000 n 0000002457 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005576 00000 n 0000010064 00000 n trailer << /Size 14 /Root 13 0 R /Info 11 0 R /ID [ <041b6d157c1fc88fdb35a0832cfc8103> <041b6d157c1fc88fdb35a0832cfc8103> ] >> startxref 10273 %%EOF Case 1: PDVSA | Marine Planning

Case 1: PDVSA

Protected areas. Click on map to enlarge.

Protected areas. Click on map to enlarge.

In order to determine priority conservation areas and to provide a visual representation of the ecosystem and human uses in the region, the project partners identified and mapped a combination of conservation targets and human uses. Experts identified all significant human uses and threats to the conservation targets (e.g., oil and gas exploitation impacts, river pollution and drainage, urban development, trawl fishing practices, maritime routes, aquaculture farms). The potential impacts of these threats and human uses were assessed on every conservation target.

To assist in the selection process, scientists used Marxan software to identify an initial set of priority conservation areas. Expert review and collaboration between PDVSA, Intecmar and The Nature Conservancy resulted in a final set of 20 priority sites with a collective surface area of 4.4 million hectares. This constitutes 20.5{2a5d6d1706341671d74cd9e261e7084f344be5d0ac8e3cb469aaa53c623578a6} of the overall study area and 37.8{2a5d6d1706341671d74cd9e261e7084f344be5d0ac8e3cb469aaa53c623578a6} of the marine areas within the continental shelf (depth less than 200 meters).

A number of the priority conservation areas overlapped partially or entirely with anticipated oil and gas exploitation blocks. For these sites, the study attempted to predict the specific exploration activities and infrastructure that would be utilized, such as the construction of platforms, wells and pipelines. Construction and activity locations were also predicted. Scenarios were run for various sites to gain a solid understanding of the potential impacts and to create a basis for providing guidelines and environmentally conscious practices to PDVSA.

Priority sites. Click on map to enlarge.

Priority sites. Click on map to enlarge.

An Oil Impact Best Practice Matrix was created to provide detailed guidelines and practices for each stage of exploration and exploitation. The suggested guidelines aimed to minimize impacts to marine biodiversity. These best environmental practices were provided to PDVSA and offshore operators to guide exploration policy and activities. For instance, dredging offshore disturbs the benthic environment, causing changes in water quality and sediment characteristics. Best environmental practices suggest that the oil industry should consider the sensitivity of the area and select a location of low impact for deposition of dredged material away from shallow water sensitive habitats. A conservation strategy that includes viability indicators was developed for each conservation target. These set of quantitative variables will be useful for monitoring the status of biodiversity in face of future oil and gas activities.

A final set of 20 priority sites was selected, with a collective surface area of 4.4 million hectares. This constitutes 20.5{2a5d6d1706341671d74cd9e261e7084f344be5d0ac8e3cb469aaa53c623578a6} of the overall study area and 37.8{2a5d6d1706341671d74cd9e261e7084f344be5d0ac8e3cb469aaa53c623578a6} of the marine areas within the continental shelf.