Marine Planning
Practical Approaches to Ocean and Coastal Decision-Making

What Is Marine Spatial Planning (MSP)?

People and marine life use the ocean in many different ways. Energy development, aquaculture pens, commercial fishing, recreational uses, and shipping lanes all compete for space in the ocean. Whales, sea turtles, seabirds, fish, and the habitats they need for survival also require places in this increasingly crowded marine environment.

“Marine spatial planning is a process to develop a blueprint for area-based management that accounts for multiple management objectives.”

Example of data for marine spatial planning in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Click on image to enlarge.
Quote and image source: Best Practices for Marine Spatial Planning (The Nature Conservancy)

Coordinating Where Activities Occur in the Ocean

To meet current and future demands on the ocean, it is essential to look comprehensively at an ocean area, consider the many different stakeholders who use it, and find ways to sustain the complex diversity of life that depends on it. Marine spatial planning (MSP) is a coordinated approach to designating where human activities occur in the ocean to minimize conflicts among stakeholders, maximize the benefits that people receive from the ocean, and help maintain healthy marine habitats.

MSP: A Tool for Ecosystem-Based Management

Both the Pew Oceans Commission and the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy called for ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine systems. Marine spatial planning is an important tool to achieve EBM because it provides a practical decision-making process for implementing many of EBM's core elements. MSP creates a blueprint for ocean use and conservation by:

Definition from U.S. Ocean Policy Task Force

The Interim Framework for Effective Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning defines coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) as

…a comprehensive, adaptive, integrated, ecosystem-based, and transparent spatial planning process, based on sound science, for analyzing current and anticipated uses of ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes areas. CMSP identifies areas most suitable for various types or classes of activities in order to reduce conflicts among uses, reduce environmental impacts, facilitate compatible uses, and preserve critical ecosystem services to meet economic, environmental, security, and social objectives. In practical terms, CMSP provides a public policy process for society to better determine how the ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes are sustainably used and protected now and for future generations.

Case studies demonstrate the implementation of MSP for multi-objective planning. Interactive decision support systems can be useful in the practice of MSP.


Marine Planning     Copyright © 2007-2011 The Nature Conservancy